Bibliography and referencing – guidelines for Harvard citation format

– articles prepared in English




Reference List Example:

Chomczyński P. (2014). Działania wychowanków schronisk dla nieletnich i zakładów poprawczych. Socjologiczna analiza interakcji grupowych [Actions of Residents of Young Offenders’ Homes and Youth Detention Centres: A Sociological Analysis of Group Interactions]. Łódź: Wydawnictwo UŁ.

Doubson A. (1997). Green Political Thought. London–New York: Routledge.

In-Text Example:

(Chomczyński 2014) – general citation of the book

(Doubson 1997: 58–63) – citation of the particular part of the text


Edited book

Reference List Example:

Beirne P. and South N. (eds.) (2007). Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals. Cullompton: Willan.

Błońska B., Gogłoza W., Klaus W. and Woźniakowska-Fajst D. (eds.) (2017). Sprawiedliwość dla zwierząt [Justice for Animals]. Warszawa: Instytut Nauk Prawnych PAN, Stowarzyszenie Otwarte Klatki.

In-Text Example:

(Beirne, South 2007)

(Błońska et al. 2017)


Article/Chapter in an Edited Book

Reference List Example:

Czarnecka D. (2013). ‘Społeczne oddziaływanie propagandy w Trzeciej Rzeszy’ [The social influence of propaganda in the Third Reich]. In A. Bartuś (ed.) Słowa w służbie nienawiści [Words in the Service of Hatred]. Oświęcim: Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau, pp. 49–63.

Faber D. and O’Connor J. (1993). ‘Capitalism and the crisis of environmentalism’. In R. Hofrichter (ed.) Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, pp. 12–24.

In-Text Example:

(Czarnecka 2013: 50–55)

(Faber, O’Connor 1993: 19)


Journal Article

Reference List Example:

Andersen M.A. (2006). ‘Crime measures and the spatial analysis of criminal activity’. British Journal of Criminology 46(2), pp. 258–285.

Łętowska E. (2014). ‘Prawo w płynnej nowoczesności’ [The law in the ‘liquid modernity’]. Państwo i Prawo 3, pp. 6–27.

In-Text Example:

(Andersen 2006: 259)

(Łętowska 2014: 10–13)



Reference List Example: (n.d.). Available online: [25.01.2016]. – If we don’t know the date of the last update of the site, we use abbreviation n.d. – no date

European Court of Human Rights [ECHR] (n.d.), European Court of Human Rights. Available online: [15.08.2019].

In-Text Example:

( n.d.)

(ECHR n.d.) – We abbreviate the title of the page which is also the name of the institution


Website Article

Reference List Example:

Gusovsky D. (2016). Americans Consume Vast Majority of World Opioids, CNBC. Available online: [9.02.2019].

Ludzie ze złomu [Scrappers] (2001), Available online:,28795,1,1.html [6.07.2018]. – We don’t know the author of the text, so we use the title as the listing element

Magyar Nemzeti Bank [MNB] (n.d.), Supervision. Available online: [7.02.2019]. – We don’t know the date of creating/updating “Supervision” webpage and MNB website either

In-Text Example:

(Ludzie 2001) – If we don’t know the author, we use the first word/words of the title for the in-text reference

(Gusovsky 2016)

(MNB n.d.)


REFERENCES LIST – general rules


Particualr elements of the bibliographic description should be written in English, regardless of the lanuage of the text: ed., In, pp., n.d. (not: red., nr, Hrsg.).


The authors of the articles are obliged to translate into English every non-English title they are mentioning on the references list. Translations should be placed in square brackets after the original titles (see examples).


We use alphabetical order.


Example of the references list:

Agnew R. (2012a). ‘Dire forecast: A theoretical model of the Impact of climate change on crime’. Theoretical Criminology 16(1), pp. 21–42.

Agnew R. (2012b). ‘It’s the end of the world as we know it: The advance of climate change from a criminological perspective’. In R. White (ed.) Climate Change from a Criminological Perspective. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 13–25.

Beirne P. (1999). ‘For a nonspeciesist criminology: Animal abuse as an object of study’. Criminology 37(1), pp. 117–148.

Beirne P. (2009). Confronting Animal Abuse: Law, Criminology, and Human-Animal Relationships. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.


If referencing multiple works from one author released in the same year, the works are allocated letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year.


If referencing multiple works from one author released in different years, we list them in chronological order.




If citing multiple works in one parentheses, we list them in chronological order and separate with semicolons, e.g.:

(Beirne 1999; Prawo telekomunikacyjne 2004; Agnew 2012b)


If citing different works of the same author, we follow the name by the list of appropriate dates in chronological order separated with commas, e.g.:

(Agnew 2009, 2012a, 2012b )


If citing multiple works of multiple authors, we list them in chronological order, e.g.:

(Malinowski 1983, 2000; Abecadłowski 2012, 2018, 2019; Nowak 2017) – Malinowski’s work is the earliest one.